Location and Building Structure
Our second study area is called “Breitensee” and is located in Penzing, the 14th district of Vienna. It is located in the outer parts of the city with an average distance of seven to eight kilometres from the city centre (taking the 1st district as the point of reference). The neighbourhood “Breitensee“ is located between “Linzer Straße“, „Fenzlgasse“, „Beckmanngasse“, „Drechslergasse“ and „Hütteldorfer Straße“ and comprises an overall area size of 389,053 m².
More than 60 per cent of the buildings in this neighbourhood were constructed during the Founder´s Period, while the share of more recent constructed buildings (1990s onwards) is below 8 per cent. Similar to the other two neighbourhoods, almost all houses have three or more flats. Although the percentage of buildings having many flats is lower than in “Gumpendorf”, 40 per cent of the houses nevertheless include 21 or more flats. Social housing is particularly common in this living area, with around 35 public housing blocks belonging to the City of Vienna. According to the latest register data (2011), just over 4,200 flats exist in “Breitensee”. The percentage of flat owners is comparably low. Only 10 per cent own their flat or house which is around 10 percentage points below the city average. As within the living area “Gumpendorf”, the proportion of single and family households in “Breitensee” is equally distributed (roughly 50 per cent each) and also lies therefore above the city average. The public park “Reinlpark” represents the core of this neighbourhood. It contains a playground for children, as well as a free swimming pool for children during the summer. The area is equally well-equipped with schools and pre-school facilities as in “Gumpendorf”. “Linzer Straße” in the South and “Hütteldorfer Straße” in the North of this area represent two main streets with shops and supermarkets for daily amenities, as well as a variety of public transport connections.
According to the latest statistics from 2013, “Breitensee” has a total population size of 8,470 persons with an equal share of women and men. Within the last five years, the population size did not increase substantially. More precisely, the number increased by around 100 persons between 2008 and 2013.
The share of children below the age of 14 was 15.3 per cent in 2011 and only slightly above the city average. At the top end of the age spectrum, 16.1 per cent are people of pensionable age, almost mirroring our study area “Gumpendorf”. Overall, the age structure within this neighbourhood shows a great degree of diversity in age with no numerically outstanding age groups.
Students enrolled in universities make up around 4.5 per cent of the population. This number is not only below city average, but is also the lowest among our three areas of interest. In general, the educational level among the local population can be described as rather low compared to the population of Vienna as a whole. Roughly one third of the population obtained a compulsory education level at the most while the proportion of highly educated residents is 14 per cent. This share of highly educated persons is again not only below city average but also only half of that in “Gumpendorf”. Turning to the employment status of the residential population, we find around 45 per cent were economically active in 2011. The unemployment rate was 12.7 per cent in the same year and therefore more than 3 percentage points above the city average.
Every second person living in “Breitensee” has a migration background. The number of foreign-born residents was around 44 per cent in 2011. Among them, immigrants from Turkey and former Yugoslavia (who arrived predominately during the “guest worker” recruitment in the 1970s and “family reunification” after 1980) constitute the largest groups. In more detail, immigrants from Serbia (21.8 per cent), Turkey (14.6 per cent) and Bosnia (11.4 per cent) represent the numerically largest groups among the immigrant population in “Breitensee”. These groups are followed by immigrants from Poland, who account for almost 10 per cent of the local immigrant population. Interestingly, immigrants from EU-27 countries only make up less than 15 per cent of all immigrants in this living area. Additionally, the share of immigrants from Germany is only half of the respective share in “Gumpendorf” (5.4 per cent). Overall, “Breitensee” is characterised by a rather high degree of ethnic diversity. Its ethnic diversity index shows a score of 0.67 (recall that a value of 0 represents no diversity).
Examining absolute in and outflow rates to “Breitensee” between 2008 and 2013 reveals that this neighbourhood was characterised by higher rates of emigration rather than immigration until 2011. Only within the last year has the net migration rate of “Breitensee” became positive. However, this increase is not driven by one particular origin group. Instead, the area became attractive to a number of residents of different backgrounds (amongst them also Austrians). Taken the rates of immigration, emigration and internal moving together as a measure of neighbourhood procession, results show that “Breitensee” can also be classified as a rather stable neighbourhood. The average rate of processions within the last 5 years is almost 32 per cent and therefore comparable to the inner city neighbourhood “Gumpendorf”.
Key Actors and Policy Measures (selected examples)
Actors and policy measures towards social cohesion and local integration in general are relatively new in “Breitensee”. Amongst the most significant local actors and initiatives in “Breitensee” are the Diakonie, the integrative housing cooperative Sargfabrik, the Youth Club “Penzing” and the Urban Renewal Office 6/14/15. The latter has been established in April 2012 in “Linzer Straße” with the aim of increasing the attractiveness of the neighbourhood, to foster lively interactions among Breitensee´s residents (in particular in public spaces, such as within the “Reinlpark”). Amongst the most significant projects was the “round table initiative” among shop owners and entrepreneurs (of different origins) on “Linzer Straße”, in order to develop a common strategy to increase the attractiveness of this shopping street and to become acquainted with one’s neighbours. As an outcome, the shopping street not only became more attractive, but also networks have been established between shop owners of various origins.
ICEC in Local Media
ICEC is featured in the local magazine VorOrt, April 2014. Read here…