Location and Building Structure
Our third neighbourhood of interest is entitled “Hippviertel” and is part of Ottakring, the 16th Viennese district. It is located between the “Gürtel”, the shopping street “Thaliastraße” (Northern neighbourhood border) and the residential streets “Gablenzgasse” and “Liebhartsgasse” (Southern and Eastern boundaries). The linear distance between the city centre and the “Hippviertel” is around four to five kilometres. Taken together, our study area encompasses an area of 301,280 m².
Around 80 per cent of the buildings in “Hippviertel” were constructed during the Founder´s period while more recently erected buildings are rare within this living area. More precisely, less than six per cent of the buildings were built after 1990. Previous studies investigating the physical structure of this neighbourhood revealed that many buildings are in a poor state of repair (Kohlbacher, Reeger, Schnell 2012: 21). Similar to the previously described neighbourhoods, nearly all buildings contain at least three or more flats. However, the percentage share of houses having more than 21 flats in one building is 34 per cent and therefore the lowest among our three study areas. Similar to Vienna in general – and to the two previously described neighbourhoods in particular – the largest proportion of the flats in “Hippviertel” are privately rented with the share of flat owners being relatively low (12.3 per cent). In total, ten public housing projects exist in this neighbourhood. Another difference to the previously described neighbourhoods can be found in the majority of households (53.2 per cent) being family households.
Turning to a general description of the local social infrastructure, the living area “Hippviertel” contains two parks with playgrounds, six public educational institutions (pre-school facilities, Kindergarten, lower secondary school), good public transport connections and a number of facilities and groceries stores, in particular on “Thaliastraße”. The “Hippviertel” is characterized by a high degree of diversity in the local infrastructure. It contains a great variety of shops, social service institutions, trade as well as gastronomy.
At present, Hippviertel has a total of 8,267 residents. This number has increased by less than 5 per cent between 2008 and 2013. In terms of the socio-demographic characteristics of the local population, we find an almost equal share of male and female residents, as well as a pronounced age diversity.
Although age diversity is almost equally as high as in “Gumpendorf” or “Breitensee”, numbers display a larger proportion of residents in their 20s to mid-30s. This numerically larger group coincides with the average share of students living in this neighbourhood, which altogether makes up for around six per cent of the total local population. It is also worth mentioning that the higher share of students in this neighbourhood is partially related to the existence of a student residence (operated by a Turkish association) as well as the generally lower rents in this neighbourhood.
Although “Hippviertel” hosts a comparably higher share of students, the overall educational level in the local population can be characterised as rather low. Around 40 per cent obtain an educational level that does not go beyond compulsory education, while the proportion of highly educated residents (post-secondary education) is 14.7 per cent and therefore the same as in “Breitensee”. The population of the “Hippviertel” shows the lowest rate of economically active residents of all three study areas (43.9 per cent), while the unemployment rate in 2011 was the highest with 13.2 per cent and therefore 4 per cent above city average. The proportion of people of pensionable age in this neighbourhood is 14.4 per cent.
According to data from 2013, 60.3 per cent of the local population in “Hippviertel” had a migration background, while the share of foreign born persons is 51.8 per cent. Among the three selected ICEC neighbourhoods, “Hippviertel” shows the highest degree of ethnic diversity (0.74). The largest origin groups among the foreign born population are immigrants from Serbia (22.2 per cent), Turkey (16.7 per cent), Bosnia (10.2 per cent) and Poland (9.2 per cent). In other words, this neighbourhood hosts a substantial number of immigrants that migrated to Vienna either during the former “guest worker recruitment period”, after the beginning of the war in the Balkans or during the East-West migration wave of the early 2000s. Similar to the neighbourhood “Breitensee”, immigration from other EU countries remains rather marginal (around 18 per cent, taken all remaining EU-27 countries together).
Investigating the net migration rate over a period of 5 years reveals that between 2008 and 2011 immigration and emigration patterns were equal. Only during 2012 did the net migration rate increase to 2.3 per 100 inhabitants. This increase was largely driven by immigrants from EU-27 countries, pointing to the start of a potential change in immigration to “Hippviertel”. The increasing attractiveness of this living area for better-off people (and among them EU-27 immigrants) might be related to gentrification processes in the neighbouring areas close to “Hippviertel”.
The overall rate of procession within this neighbourhood does not deviate substantially from “Breitensee” or “Gumpendorf”, although it is the highest among the three ICEC neighbourhoods (on average 38.5 per cent between 2008 and 2012).
Key Actors and Policy Measures (selected examples)
There are a number of relevant actors in the neighbourhood “Hippviertel” constantly working on projects that aim to foster neighbourhood cohesion in general and to support local integration projects in particular. The Urban Renewal Office 7/8/16 charged with the 16th District, one of the oldest in Vienna, might be the most significant key actor. The Urban Renewal Office established a number of policy measures, such as activities to increase interactions among local residents of different origins on market or public places. Further projects and initiatives are provided by adult education centres, the local library as well as the community centre within the neighbourhood.